Similarities and Differences of the Emerging Prison Problems in England and Wales vs. Kosovo: a Sociological and Criminological Perspective
Prisons are probably the most debatable institutions within the Criminal Justice System in any given country and as such demand contemporary explanation and understanding. Despite the fact that prisons affect the life of many people, not only of those incarcerated but also of their families and friends, nevertheless they do not receive the necessary attention; instead they remain the most enigmatic and less interesting organizations amongst the Criminal Justice System in general.
This paper, by using a literature review approach, looks into some of the most important debates, similarities and differences respectively, about prisons in England and Wales, and Kosovo. Whilst most of the problems both countries face are of similar nature, Kosovo nevertheless faces some additional problems which are not visible in the England and Wales prisons. The paper further examines the causes of these problems in the Kosovo prisons and the involvement of the international community and their efforts in assisting Kosovo in fixing the problems in the field of corrections as part of the Kosovo state-building process.
The paper will show that both countries face difficulties with similar problem areas such as overcrowding, running costs, and so on. However, compared to England and Wales, the problems Kosovo prison system is facing are of a more serious and complicated nature which require serious involvement of the Kosovo government and policy makers as well as the international community which has been present in Kosovo since 1999.
Aitchison, A. (2010) ‘Global meets local: International participation in prison reform and restucturing in Bosnia and Herzegovina’. Criminology and Criminal Justice 2010 (10): 77. British Society of Criminology
Amnesty International (1999) 'Smrekovnica prison - a regime of torture and ill-treatment leaves hundreds unaccounted for'. (AI Index: EUR 70/107/99). Available at: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/EUR70/107/1999/en/3838738b-e04d-11dd-b049-c56b318da40f/eur701071999en.pdf [date of last access 29 November 2012]
Bastick, M. (2010) ‘The Role of Penal Reform in Security Sector Reform’. Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF). Occasional Paper №18.
BBC (2012) 'Reoffending rates: More to be done, say MPs'. 10 August, 2012. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-19303878 [date of last access 18 December 2012]
Businessinsider (2012) 'The 20 Most Miserable Countries in the World'. Avilable at: http://www.businessinsider.com/20-miserable-countries-2012-5?op=1 [date of last access 12 January 2013]
Cady, J.C. (2012) ‘Establishing the Rule of Law: The U.N. Challenge in Kosovo'. Focus stratégique n°34 bis. June 2012
Carrabine, E., Iganski, P., Lee, M., Plummer, K., and South, N. (2004) Criminology, a sociological introduction. Routledge: London
Cavadino, M. and Dignan J. (2007) The Penal System: an introduction. 4th Ed. Sage: London
Christie, N. (2000) Crime Control as Industry: Towards Gulags, Western Style? 3rd. Ed. Routledge: London
Council for the Defense of Human Rights and Freedoms (2008) ‘Report On The Monitoring Of The Penal Management System In Kosova’ 1 April 2008 – 31 December 2008. Pristina.
Council of Europe (2012) 'Post-war justice and durable peace in the former Yugoslavia'. Issue Paper by the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights. Council of Europe Publishing
Coyle, A. (2005) Understanding prisons: Key issues in policy and practice. McGraw-Hill: Open University Press
CPT (2010) ‘Report to the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) on the visit to Kosovo carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)’. 8 to 15 June 2010
Daily Mail (2011) ‘So prison DOES work: criminals who spend longer behind bars are less likely to reoffend’. 10 May, 2011. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article- 1385479/Criminals-spend-longer-bars-likely-reoffend.html [date of last access 10 October 2012]
Davies, M., Croall, H. and Tyrer, J. (2005) Criminal Justice: an introduction to the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales. 3rd Ed. Pearson: Harlow
Davis, A. (2003) Are Prisons Obsolete? Seven Stories Press: NY
DFID 2008 ‘Kosovo Factsheet’. February 2008. Available at: www.dfid.gov.uk [date of last access 21 August 2008]
Dijkstra, H. (2011) 'The Planning and Implementation of the Rule of Law Mission of the European Union in Kosovo', Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, 5 (2); pp. 193-210
The Economist (2012) ‘Outs and Ins; the political ramifications of several judicial rulings’. 24 November, 2012. Available at: http://www.economist.com/news/europe/21567133-political-ramifications-several-judicial-rulings-outs-and-ins [date of last access 21 November 2012]
Ellis, T. and Lewis C. (2012) ‘Prison Works! Or Prison Works? In T. Ellis and S.P. Savage (Eds.) Debates in Criminal Justice. Routledge: Oxon
EU (2012) 'EULEX Kosovo'. Common Security and Defense Policy. Available at: http://www.consilium.europa.eu/eeas/security-defence/eu-operations/eulex-kosovo [date of last access 19 October 2012]
EULEX (2009) ‘EULEX Programme Report’. Available at: http://www.eulex- kosovo.eu/docs/Accountability/EULEX-PROGRAMME-REPORT-July-2009-new.pdf [date of last access 19 October 2012]
Foucault, M. (1974) Discipline and Punish: the birth of prison. Penguin Books: London
Garland, D. Ed. (2001) – Mass Imprisonment: Social Causes and Consequences. SAGE: London
Green, E. and Ellis, L (2007) ‘Decision Making in Criminal Justice’ in D. Carson, R. Milne, F. Pakes, K. Shalev, and A. Shawye (Eds.). Applying Psychology to Criminal Justice. Wiley: Chichester
Hirschel, J. D. and Wakefield, W. (1995) Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Greenwood: Westport
Human Rights Watch (2001) ‘Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo’. HRW Publications: New York
International Crisis Group (2000) ‘Albanians in Serbian Prisons: Kosovo's Unfinished Business'. ICG Balkans Report N° 85. Washington/Pristina, 26 January 2000
International Crisis Group (2010) ‘The Rule of Law in Independent Kosovo’. Report No. 204; May, 2010
Jacobson M. (2005) Downsizing Prisons: How to Reduce Crime and End Mass Incarceration. University Press: New York
Jewkes, Y. (2007a) 'Prisons in Perspective' in Y. Jewkes Handbook on Prisons. Willan Publishing: Devon
Jewkes, Y. (2007b) 'Understanding the Prison' in Y. Jewkes Handbook on Prisons. Willan Publishing: Devon
Johnson, H., Wolfe, N.T. and Jones, M. (2008) History of Criminal Justice. 4th Ed. Anderson Publishing
Jones, N.A., Parmentier, S. and Weitekamp, E. (2012) ‘Dealing with international crimes in post-war Bosnia: a look through the lens of the affected population’. European Journal of Criminology. No.9 (553) SAGE.
King, R.D. (2000) ‘Doing research in prisons’ in R.D. King and E. Wincup Doing Research on Crime and Justice. Oxford University Press: Oxford
King, R.D. (2008) ‘Prison and Jails’ in S.G. Shoham, O. Beck, and M. Kett (Eds.) International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice. CRC Press: New York
Koha (2012a) ‘Korrupsioni shkarkon udheheqesit e Dubraves’ [Corruption sacks the managers of Dubrava prison]. 31 August, 2012. Available at: http://www.koha.net/index.php/force_download/.../Documents.pdf?page=1,13,113506 [date of last access 12 September 2012]
Koha Ditore (2012) ‘Dell: Spektri politik i Kosovës është i zhytur në korrupsion’ [Dell: Kosovo political spectrum engulfed in corruption]. 30 March, 2012. Available at:
http://koha.net/?page=1,13,93620 [date of last access 12 September 2012]
Koha (2012b) 'Cliff habitet si asnjë zyrtar i përfshirë në korrupsion s’dha dorëheqje' [Cliff astonished how not a single official involved in corruption resigned]. 20 September, 2012. Available at: http://www.koha.net/?page=1,13,115958 [date of last access 29 September 2012]
Kosova Sot (2012) ‘UNMIK-u asgjesoi dosjet e krimeve politike’. [UNMIK destroyed files of political crimes]. August 13, 2012. [date of last access 29 September 2012]
KRCT (2012) ‘Human Rights Standards in Correctional and Detention Centres in Kosovo. Annual Report, January – December 2011.
Kurti, A. (2011) ‘Kosova in Dependence: from stability of crisis to the crisis of stability’. JISB Interview. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding. 5(1) pp. 89-97
Liebling, A. (2002) ‘The uses of imprisonment’ in S. Rex and M. Tonry (Eds.) Reform and Punishment: the future of imprisonment. Willan: Devon
Liebling, A. (2006) 'Prisons in transition'. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, No.29 (422-430). Elsevier Pub.
MoJ (2011) 'National Offender Management Service Annual Report and Accounts 2010- 11: Management Information Addendum. Planning and Analysis Group National Offender Management Service Ministry of Justice: London. Available at: http://www.justice.gov.uk/downloads/statistics/prison-probation/prison-probation-performance-stats/prison-costs-summary-10-11.pdf [date of last access 10 November 2012]
Morgan, R. (2002) 'Imprisonment: a brief history, the contemporary scene, and likely prospects' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. 3rd Ed. Oxford University Press: Oxford
Narten, J. (2009) ‘Dilemmas of Promoting “Local-Ownership”: the case of postwar Kosovo. in R. Paris and T. D. Sisk (eds). The dilemmas of statebuilding: confronting the contradictions of postwar peace operations. London: Routledge
The New York Times (1999) 'Stench of Horror Lingers In a Prison in Kosovo'. November 08, 1999. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/11/08/world/stench-of-horror-lingers-in-a-prison-in-kosovo.html?pagewanted=allandsrc=pm [date of last access 12 September 2012]
O'Neill, W. G. (2002) Kosovo: An Unfinished Peace. Lynne Rienner Publishers
Owers, A. (2007) 'Imprisonment in the twenty-first century: a view from the inspectorate' in Jewkes, Y. Handbook on Prisons. Willan Publishing: Devon
Pula, B. (2003) ‘The UN in Kosova: Administering Democratization?’ in F. Bieber and Z. Daskalovski (eds.) Understanding the War in Kosovo. London: Frank Cass
Reuters (2012) 'Kosovo condemns YouTube leak of phone taps from EU investigation'. 30 November, 2012. Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/11/30/us-kosovo-eu-tapes-idUSBRE8AT0GA20121130 [date of last access 11 December 2012]
Rutherford, A. (2002) ‘Penal Reform and Prison Realities’ in D. Whitfield (Ed.) The State of the Prisons—200 Years On. Routledge: London
Santoro, E. (2003) ‘Crime and Punishment’ in R. Bellamy and A. Mason (Eds.) Political Concepts. Manchester University Press: Manchester
Scott, D. and Codd, H. (2010) Controversial issues in prisons. Open University Press: Berkshire
Southeast Europe Times (2011) ‘Problems still plague Kosovo's prisons’. Available at: http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2011/11/22 /feature-04 [date of last access 11 December 2012]
Smith, K. and Natalier, P. (2005) Understanding Criminal Justice: Sociological Perspectives.
Soothill, K. (2007) 'Prison Histories and competing audiences, 1776-1966' in Y. Jewkes Handbook on Prisons. Willan Publishing: Devon
Sparks, R. (2001) 'Prisons, Punishment and Penalty'. in E. McLaughlin and J. Muncie (Eds.) Controlling Crime. London: Sage
Sparks, R. (2007) 'The politics of imprisonment' in Y. Jewkes Handbook on Prisons. Willan Publishing: Devon
Stern, V. (2006) Creating Criminals: Prisons and People in a Market Society. Zed Books: London
Strohmeyer, H. (2001) 'Collapse and Reconstruction of a Judicial System: the UNs missions in Kosovo and East Timor'. The American Journal of International Law. No. 95 (46) pp. 46-63.
The Telegraph (2010) 'Prisoner re-offending costs economy £10bn annually'. 10 March, 2010. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/law-and-order/7405716/Prisoner-re-offending-costs-economy-10bn-annually.html [date of last access 10 December 2012]
Tonry, M (2004) ‘Pioneering criminologist who changed our approach to prison and probation’. The Guardian Friday 9 April 2004. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/news/2004/apr/09/guardianobituaries.prisonsandprobation [date of last access 13 October 2012]
Tonry, M. and Petersilia, J. (1999) ‘Prison research at the beginning of 21st Century’. Journal of Crime andJustice, No. 26. National Institute of Justice
Transparency International (2014) ‘Corruption Perception Index 2014’. Available at: https://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results [date of last access 21 February 2015]
Transparency International (2012) 'Kosovo is lagging behind in the fight against corruption'. 13 October 2012. Available at: http://www.transparency.org/news/pressrelease/20121018_kosovo_is_lagging_behind_in_the_fight_against_corruption [date of last access 5 January 2013]
United Nations (2005) ‘Supporting National Prison Systems: Lessons Learned and Best Practices for Peacekeeping Operations'. Criminal Law and Judicial Advisory Unit Peacekeeping Best Practices Section December 2005. Available at: http://unrol.org/files/Prison_Support_Lessons_Learned_and_Best_Practices.pdf
USAID (2014) 'Kosovo: 2014-2018 country development cooperation strategy'. Available at: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1863/CDCS_Kosovo.pdf [date of last access 21 February 2015]
Useem, B. and Morrison-Piehl, A. (2008) Prison State: The Challenge of Mass Incarceration. Cambridge University Press
Walmsley, R. (2005) ‘Prisons in Central and Eastern Europe’. The European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control. HEUNI Paper no. 22. Helsinki 2005.
Williams P.J. (2011) Criminal Justice: Pros and Cons. iUniverse, Inc.: Bloomington
Zeri (2012) ‘Nepotizmi ka leshuar “rrenje” ne Kosove’ [Nepotism deeply rooted in Kosovo]. 4 December, 2012.
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2016 MSc. Arben Lubach
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.