The fall of the Albanian - Chinese Relations 1971-1978

Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriçi

Abstract


The Albanian - Chinese relations in the years of the Cold War were thrilling as much as dramatic. The age of their flourish in the '60-ies, unfortunately did not last for long. The Albanian sponsorship that China be admitted in the UN with full rights was a test that Enver Hoxha should exploit for the good of the Albanian people. It was a historic and unrepeated opportunity for little Albania to escape the political and economic impasse since the breakup of relations with the Soviet Union in 1961. The incompetence of the Albanian leadership to understand the trends of the age would mark the following political failure of Albania and would influent in the total isolation of the country. It's not difficult to understand that Albania had historic opportunities to join the Western side but chose to align with the Eastern bloc. The beginnings are with sensational approach with Tito's Yugoslavia. After that the Albanian political leadership kept Albania under the umbrella of the Soviet Union and at the end with China. After the end of the relations with China in 1978, Albania paved the way of the total isolation.  The secret visit of the President Nixon's national security adviser Dr. Kissinger to China in July 1971 was interpreted by the Albanian communist leader as a betrayal of the Marxist ideology. Enver Hoxha responded with a harsh and rude letter on August 6th 1971 urging China to not accept the visit of President Nixon the following year. This was the first major break in the relations between the two countries. Since then, the help from China for the weak Albanian economy would decline till the unavoidable break of July 1978. The methodology used in this paper is strictly comparative history analyzing the way diplomacy and politics should work to achieve the set aim.


Keywords


Enver Hoxha; Mao Tse Tung; Chou En Lai; Albania; China; USA; diplomacy; ideology;

References


Albanian Archive of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (1978), File No. 283

Albanian Archive of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (1977), File No. 245

Albanian Archive of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (1971), File No. 150

Albanian Archive of Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (1971), File No. 152

Albanian Central National Archive (1975), F. 14./AP-MPKK, File No. 6

Albanian Central National Archive (1974), F. 14./AP-MPKK, File No. 2

Albanian Central National Archive (1971), F. 14./AP-MPKK, File No. 3

Albanian Central National Archive (1971), F. 14./AP-MPKK, File no. 10

Kissinger H., (1979), “White House Years”. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson

Hoxha, Enver (1979), "Shёnime pёr Kinёn",Vol. I. Tirana: 8 Nёntori

Historia e popullit shqiptar,(2009), Vol. IV. Tirana: Toena


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DOI: 10.21113/iir.v6i1.218

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Copyright (c) 2016 Gjon BORIÇI, GJon Borici

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