Ethiopia: A Democratic Developmental State?
The ruling Ethiopia People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) in its notable second reform appraisal held in the aftermath of the 2005 national election concluded that the utmost priority of the government should be realizing fastest and sustainable economic growth that fairly benefits its citizens’ unless the very existence of the country wouldn’t be guaranteed. Given the history of poverty reduction in developing countries, particularly in Africa, EPRDF realized that it is unthinkable to eradicate poverty from Ethiopia adopting neo-liberalism. Above all, the miraculous economic transformation of the South East Asian countries like South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong has proved that there is another way to development, not just neo-liberalism. Accordingly, EPRDF, after examining South Korea’s and Taiwan’s history of economic development in particular where both countries have had a large section of rural population unlike Hong Kong and Singapore where both are urban, found ‘developmental state’ relevant to Ethiopia. However, unlike these countries which were originally under non-democratic regimes where their leaders fear the rural peasant and external aggression from their communist rivals, EPRDF has had a great support of rural and urban population with no imminent foreign threat(s), and decided to execute the ideology rather under the umbrella of democracy. Therefore, employing secondary sources, this desk study aims to analyze whether Ethiopia is a ‘democratic developmental state?’ And, concludes that given the practices of the government vis-a-vis the principles of democracy and developmental state, Ethiopia couldn’t be taken as best model for democratic developmental state, rather emerging developmental state.
Alebachew, H., (n.d), “Logic of ‘Developmental Democracy’ and the Developmental State.”
Atlaw, D., (2013). "Promising democratic developmental state in Africa: Evidence from Ethiopia". (International Journal of Educational Research and Development Vol. 2 No.7, pp. 168-177).
Chang, H., (2003), “Kicking Away the Ladder: The ‘Real’ History of Free Trade”. Foreign Policy in Focus (FPIF) special report.
Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, 1995.
Daba, B., & Mulu, F. (2017), Incorporating ‘‘Democratic Developmental State Ideology’’ into Ethiopia’s Ethnic Federalism – A Contradiction? Üniversitepark Bülten, 6(1), 109-117.
Dejene, T., (n.d), “The Emergence of Democratic Developmental States in Africa: The Ethiopian Experience”.
Demissie, W., (2013), “Examining some of the raisons d'être for the Ethiopian anti-terrorism law”. Mizan Law Review Vol. 7 No.1.
Desta, A., (n.d), “The Continuing Saga of Globalism: Comparing Ethiopia’s Developmental State Strategies to those of Malaysia, Part II”.
EISA conference report 2008.
FDRE proclamation on anti-terrorism, Proclamation No. 652/2009.
Hopkins, C. et al, (2009), “Sounding the horn: Ethiopia’s civil society law threatens human rights defenders”. Center for international human rights: northwestern university.
Hyun-Chin, L., & Jang J.,, (2006), “Between neoliberalism and democracy: the transformation of the developmental state in South Korea”. Development and Society, Volume 35 Number 1, pp. 1-28.
Kefale, A., (2011), “Narratives of Developmentalism and Development in Ethiopia: Some preliminary explorations”.
Klausen, B., (2005), “Structural transformation in Ethiopia: Development and International Relations”. Master’s Thesis: Aalborg University, Unpublished.
Leftwich, A., (2000), States of Development. On the Primacy of Politics in Development, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Leftwich, A., (2005), Democracy and Development. Is there Institutional Compatibility? In: Democratization, 12 (5), 686‐703.
Meyns, P., and Musamba, C., (2010), (eds), The Developmental State in Africa: Problems and Prospects. Institute for Development and Peace, University of Duisburg‐Essen (INEF‐Report, 101/2010).
Mkandawire, T., (2001), “Thinking about developmental states in Africa”. (Cambridge Journal of Economics; Vol. 25, No. 3.
Mulu, F. & Daba, B. (2017), In defense of Ethiopia’s adoption of ‘‘Democratic Developmental State’’–Issues and Challenges, Üniversitepark Bülten, 6(2), forthcoming.
Nishi, M., (2013a), “Problems and Possibilities of Democratic Developmentalism in Ethiopia”. Conference Paper, 56th Annual Meeting of the African Studies Association: Kyoto University (2013).
Nishi, M., (2003b), Ideologies for Transformation and Ethiopia’s renaissance, Birha ena Selam prenting Press, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Routley, L., (2014), Developmental States in Africa? A Review of Ongoing Debates and Buzzwords. Development Policy Review, 32(2), 159-177.
Sehen, B., & Tsegaye R., (2012), Democratization in a Developmental State: The Case of Ethiopia Issues, Challenges, and Prospects. UNDP-Ethiopia No.1, 2012.
Taylor, I., (2005), “The Developmental State in Africa: The Case of Botswana”. In the Potentiality of Developmental State in Africa: Botswana and Uganda Compared. Dakar: CODESRIA, PP 44-56.
Zenawi, M., (2006), “African Development: Dead Ends and New Beginnings”. Preliminary draft.
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2017 Fesseha Mulu Gebremariam, Abtewold Moges Bayu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.