Celebrating victory: art and war booty in Classical GrCelebrating victory: art and war booty in Classical Greeceeece

Dr.Sc. Lucia Nováková, Dr.Sc. Romana Šályová

Abstract


The celebration of victory, along with the demonstration of power and invincibility, was one of the key elements of public art in advanced ancient civilizations. Ancient Greece was no exception. Classical Athenian art was largely funded by the Athenians’ military booty and the members of the Delian League. Every piece of work was designed to make the unity and power of the Greek world visible, led by Athens, to emphasize the difference between Greeks and those they called barbarians. Permanent monuments, tropaia, served to constantly remind people of the great triumphs of the Hellenes over defeated enemies. They began to appear during the Greco-Persian Wars. These were community works that later became a model for the propaganda repertoire of the Romans and other nations. However, there were not the only Greek memorials celebrating victory. In individual city-states and temple districts were buildings, sculptures and paintings celebrating the power of Hellenes that were complemented by literary works of poets and playwrights. The effort to make military power and superiority more visible in art was also characterized by the fratricidal battles of the Greeks during the Peloponnesian Wars.


Keywords


antiquity; art; booty; military history; war;

References


Aeschin.: Aeschines. Collected works, ed. and transl. by Ch. Darwin Adams. London: William Heinemann 1919.

Aristoph. Kn.: Aristophanes. Knights, transl. by E. O'Neill, Jr. New York: Random House 1938.

Aristoph. Lys.: Aristophanes. Lysistrata, transl. by E. O'Neill, Jr. New York: Random House 1938.

Aristoph. Wasps: Aristophanes. Wasps, transl. by E. O'Neill, Jr. New York: Random House 1938.

Cic. Inv.: Cicero, M. Tullius. Rhetorici libri duo qui vocantur de invention, ed. by E. Stroebel. Lipsiae: In Aedibus B.G. Teubneri 1915.

Crit.: Critias. Elegy and Iambus, transl. by. J. M. Edmonds. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1931.

D. Chr.: Dio Chrysostom. Orationes, ed. by J. de Arnim. Berlin: Weidman 1893.

Dem.: Demosthenes. Demosthenes with an English translation, ed. and transl. by C. A. Vince, M. A. and J. H. Vince. London: William Heinemann 1926.

Diod.: Diodorus Siculus. Library of History, transl. by C. H. Oldfather. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1935.

Eur. Ion: Euripides. Ion, transl. by R. Potter. New York: Random House 1938.

Harp.: Harpocration, Valerius. Harpocrationis Lexicon in decem oratores Atticos, ed. by W. Dindorf. Oxford: Typographeo Academico1853.

Hdt.: Herodotus. Histories, transl. G. C. Macaulay. London: Macmillan and Co. 1904.

Isoc.: Isocrates. Collected Works, transl. by G. Norlin. London: William Heinemann 1980.

Lyc.: Lycurgus. Minor Attic Orators, ed. and transl. by J. O. Burtt. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1962.

Paus.: Pausanias. Description of Greece, transl. by W.H.S. Jones, Litt.D., and H.A. Ormerod. London: William Heinemann 1918.

Pind. P.: Pindar. Carmina cum fragmentis, ed. by C. M. Bowra. Oxford: Clarendon press 1951.

Plat. Menex.: Plato. Menexenus, transl. by W.R.M. Lamb. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1925.

Plut.: Plutarch. Parallel Lives, transl. by B. Perrin. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1914.

Plut. De Herod. Plutarch. De Herodi malignitate, transl. by W.W. Goodwin. Cambridge: John Wilson and son 1874.

Strab.: Strabo. Geography, transl. by H.C. Hamilton and W. Falconer, London: George Bell & Sons. 1903.

Thuc.: Thucydides. Histories, ed. and transl. by E. C. Marchant, London: Macmillan 1909.

Vitr.: Vitruvius. On Architecture, ed. and transl. by M. H. Morgan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1914.

Xen. Anab.: Xenophon. Anabasis, transl. by C. L. Brownson. Cambridge: Harvard University Press 1922.

Xen. Hell.: Xenophon. Hellenica, ed. and transl. C.L. Brownson. London: 1918.

Duffy, X.S. 2016. Monuments, Memory and Place: Commemorations of the Persian Wars. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.

Furtwängler, A. and Urlichs, H. L. 1911: Denkmäler griechischer and römischer Skulptur. München: F. Bruckmann.

Goette, H. and Hammerstaedt, J. 2004: Das Antike Athen. Ein literarisch Stadtführer. München: Verlag C.H. Beck.

Mallwitz, A. 1983. “Das Staatsgrab am 3. Horos.“ In Rundbauten im Kerameikos. Ergebnisse der Ausgrabungen, ed. by Koenigs, W. et al., 99-125. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Marks, K. 2010. Victory as Commemorative Act: The Tropaion in Context. Athens: University of Georgia.

Miller, M. C. 2004. Athens and Persia in the fifth Century BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Neer, R. 2004. “The Athenian Treasury at Delphi and the Material of Politics.“ ClAnt 23/1: 63-93.

Nováková, L. and Šályová, R. 2019: Marking the victory in ancient Greece: some remarks on Classical trophy monuments. Iliria International Review 9/1: 191-201.

Osborne, R. 2003. Greek Historical Inscription 404-323 BC. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Palagia, O. and J.J. Pollitt 1999: Personal Styles in Greek Sculpture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pedley, J. 2005. Sanctuaries and the Sacred in the Ancient Greek World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Raubitschek, A. E. 1940: “Two Monuments Erected after the Victory of Marathon.“ AJA 44/1: 53-9.

Raubitschek, A. E. and G.P. Stevens 1946: “The Pedestal of the Athena Promachos.“ Hesperia 15: 107-14.

Ridgway, B.S. 1977: “The Plataian Tripod and the Serpentine Column.“ AJA 81: 374-79.

Rouse, W.H.D.1902. Greek votive offerings. An Essay in the History of Greek Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Scott, M. 2014: Delphi and Olympia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stroszeck, J. 2004. “Greek Trophy Monuments.“ In Myth and Symbol II. Symbolic Phenomena in Ancient Greek Culture, ed. by S. des Bouvrie, 303-31. Norway: Bergen.

Tritle, A. L. 1997: The Greek World in the Fourth Century. United Kingdom: Psychology Press.

Umholz, G. 2002: “Dedicatory Inscriptions in Greek Architecture of the Classical Period.“ Hesperia 71: 261-93.

Vanderpool, E. 1942: “An Inscribed Stele from Marathon.“ Hesperia 11: 329-37.

Vanderpool, E. 1966: “A Monument to the Battle of Marathon.“ Hesperia 35/2: 93-106.

Wallace, P. W. 1969: “Psyttaleia and the Trophies of the Battle of Salamis.“ AJA 73/3: 293-303.

West, W.C. 1969. “The Trophies of the Persian Wars.“ CP 64/1: 7-19.

West 2009, W.C. Greek Public Monuments of the Persian Wars. Chicago: UMI.


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.21113/iir.v9i2.516

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2019 Dr.Sc. Lucia Nováková, Dr.Sc. Romana Šályová

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
x
Message