Student’s Attitudes and Perceptions of Effective Grammar Acquisition in the Second Language Classroom

Dr.Sc. Almasa Mulalić


Grammar is the backbone of any language learning; it is the main constituent of booth written language and oral communication. Grammar also facilitates the transfer of thoughts and ideas to the other people. Thus, the researchers and language theorists have different views on the importance of teaching grammar to language learners. On one hand, some researchers argue for teaching structural grammar, while the others argue for the communicative teaching approach. In order to test the main research questions this research was based on adopted questionnaire that was distributed to undergraduate students at the International University of Sarajevo. The questionnaire entitled “Student’s perceptions of grammar learning,” determined student’s perceptions, ideas, methods and experiences in learning grammar. This research also analyzed how students acquired grammar by examining their definitions of grammar, importance of grammar, need of grammar learning, grammar learning techniques and methods and error correction and feedback in ESL. In order to get the results we used SPSS program in which frequencies for specific questions were obtained. Obtained data from the research on both teaching and learning grammar will be valuable for course development, planning and teaching grammar. Data will lead researchers and teachers to match students’ needs and interests on the path of effective grammar learning in ESL.


Grammar; Second Language Learning; Teaching Grammar; Grammar Learning and Acquisition;


Aarts, B. (2006). “Grammar”. In R. Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 113–115.

Akbari, R. (2008). “Post method Discourse and Practice.” TESOL Quarterly, 42/4.

Brown, H. D. (2007). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Pearson Longman.

Borg, S. (1999). Studying Teacher Cognition in Second Language Grammar Teaching. System, 27, 19-31.

Celce-Murcia, M., Dornyei, Z. and Thurrell, S. (1997) 'Direct Approaches in L2 Instruction: A Turning Point in Communicative Language Teaching?’ TESOL Quarterly, 31: 141 -52.

Council of Europe. (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from:

Ellis, N. (1994). “Implicit and Explicit Processes in Language Acquisition: An Introduction.” In N. Ellis (Ed.). Implicit and Explicit Learning of Languages (pp. 1–32). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Ellis, R. (Ed.). (1989). “Classroom Language Learning.” Special issue of System. 17. 2.

Ellis, R. (1997). “Second Language Acquisition.” In Oxford Introduction to Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2006). Task-based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ellis, R. (2006). “Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar: An SLA Perspective.” Tesol Quarterly. Vol. 40, No. 1.

Krashen, S. (1981). Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Krashen, S. (1993). “The Case for Free Voluntary Reading.” The Canadian Modern Language Review 50 (1):72 -82.

Krashen, S. (1999). “Seeking a Role for Grammar: A Review of some Recent Studies.” Foreign Language Annals, 32(2): 245-257.

Krashen, S. (2008). “Language Education: Past, Present and Future.” RELC Journal 39 (2): 178-187

Halliday, M. A. K. (1985) Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.

Harley, B., & Swain, M. (1984). “The Interlanguage of Immersion Students and Its Implications on Second Language Teaching.” In A Davies, e. Criper, & AP.R Howatt (Eds.). Interlanguage (pp. 291-311). Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.

Howatt, A. (1984). A History of English Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kelly, L. (1969). 25 Centuries of Language Teaching. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (1994). “The Postmethod condition: (E)merging strategies for second/foreign language teaching.” TESOL Quarterly, 28.

Lapkin, S., D. Hart and M. Swain. (1991). “Early” and “Middle” French Immersion Programs: French Language Outcomes.” The Canadian Modern Language Review. Vol. 48(1):1-40.

Leow, R. (2002). “Models, attention and awareness in SLA: A response to Simard and Wong’s “Alertness, Orientation, and Detection: The Conceptualization of Attentional Functions in SLA” (SSLA, 23, 103-124). Studies in Second Language Acquisition. Vol. 24(1): 113-119.

Leow, R. P. (1998b). “The Effects of Amount and Type of Exposure on Adult Learners' L2 Development.” Modern Language Journal. Vol. 82: 49–68.

Leow, R. P. (2001a). “Attention, Awareness, and Foreign Language Behavior.” Language Learning. Vol. 51: 113–155.

Long, M. (1991). “Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology.” In K. de Bot, R. Ginsberg, & C. Kramsch (Eds.). Foreign Language Research in Cross-cultural Perspective (pp. 39-52). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Long, M., & Robinson, P. (1998). “Focus on Form: Theory, Research, and Practice.” In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.). Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition (pp. 15-63). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Mulalic, A., Shah, P. M., & Ahmad, F. (2009). “Perceptual Learning Styles of ESL Students.” European Journal of Social Sciences, 7(3), 101-113.

Mulalic, A., Obralic, N. (2016). “The Relationship between Motivation Components and Preferred Learning Components among Students at International University of Sarajevo.” Epiphany Journal of Tran disciplinary Studies. 9(1), 75-84.

Nassaji, H. and Fotos, S. (2011). Teaching Grammar in Second Language Classroom: Integrating Form-Focused Instruction in Communicative Context. New York, NY: Routledge.

Noguchi, R. R. (1991). Grammar and the Teaching of Writing: Limits and Possibilities. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Reber, A. (1967). “Implicit Learning of Artificial Grammars.” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. Vol. 6: 855–863.

Reber, A. (1993). Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Rutherford, W. (1987). Second Language Grammar: Learning and Teaching. London: Longman.

Schmidt, R. (1990). “The Role of Consciousness in Second Language Learning.” Applied Linguistics. Vol. 11: 129-158.

Schmidt, R. (1993). “Awareness and Second Language Acquisition.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. Vol. 13: 206-226.

Skehan, P. (1998). A Cognitive Approach to Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swain, M. (1985). “Communicative Competence: Some Roles of Compre-hensible Input and Comprehensible Output in its Development.” In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.). Input in Second Language Acquisition (pp. 235-256). Rowley, MA: Newbury.

Swain, M. and Lapkin, S. (1986). “Immersion French in Secondary Schools: 'The Goods' and 'the Bads'.” Contact. Vol. 5(3): 2-9.

Tajzadeh, P., Jahander, S., & Khodabandehlou, M. (2013). “The Impact of Visual Presentation of Iranian Intermediate EFL Learner’s writing Ability.” Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Science, 3(3): 235-240.

Tomasello, M. (1998). “Introduction: A Cognitive-functional Perspective on Language Structure.” In M. Tomasello (Ed.). The New Psychology of Language: Cognitive and Functional Approaches to Language Structure (pp. vii–xxiii). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.21113/iir.v9i2.518

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Dr.Sc. Almasa Mulalić

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.