Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership

Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj, MSc. Gentrit Berisha

Abstract


Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956), this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas.

In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually) as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety). The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.


Keywords


General Systems Theory; Systems Approach; Management; Leadership; Situational Approach;Transformational Leadership; Transactional Leadership;

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DOI: 10.21113/iir.v4i1.53

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