The growth of Political Islam in Egypt (The Islamic Brotherhood Movement – IBM as a model)
As a result of weakening of the Ottoman Empire, Egypt was weakened in both economic and political aspect, beginning from year 1801, when the English expelled the French from the country, Egypt was continuously a prey of imperialist objectives. As a result of deepening dependency from abroad, the Egyptian economy was in the hands of foreign companies, the army and few local cooperatives. The decreasing number of the middle class made most of the population to fall into extreme poverty. The imperialist invasion and unsuccessful result of the modernist and secular thought of the constitution in 1921 was a reason for the growth and development of political Islam. Jamaluddin Afghani and Mohammed Abduh are two thinkers who influenced for the birth of political Islam in Egypt and its’ positioning in an ideological frame.
Political Islam, since the second half of the 19th century has begun to grow, as a result of the application of the European model of a nation-state and as a result of the depravity of the politics of the dynasty that used to rule the country (Zubaida, 2011:73). The despair that was felt by the population as a result of the fail of political and economic experiments, as well as the gap created in the governance, prepared the ground for development of Islamic movements, and one of them was the IBM. This situation is the first critical point that influenced the growth of political Islam in Egypt.
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