ILIRIA International Review http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir <p>ILIRIA INTERNATIONAL REVIEW (IIR) is an international scientific journal &nbsp;registered in <a href="https://portal.dnb.de/opac.htm;jsessionid=D6D525F8015A7BF8D4FFC5739424CB64.prod-worker1?query=ILIRIA+International+Review&amp;method=simpleSearch"><strong>Deutsche National Bibliothek</strong> </a>with Print ISSN&nbsp;(2192-7081) and Online ISSN (2365-8592). IIR is double-blind peer-reviewed and open access published semi- annually by <strong><a href="http://www.uiliria.org/ui/">ILIRIA College</a></strong> (Kosovo) in cooperation with <strong><a href="http://www.felix-verlag.de/">Felix – Verlag</a> </strong>(Germany).</p> <p>IIR is devoted to publish research papers from the field of Social Sciences and Humanities. IIR aims to promote interdisciplinary studies and research and to explore the intersection of policy, practice and research from the South East European Region.</p> <p>ILIRIA INTERNATIONAL REVIEW carries original papers that aim to contribute to the advancement of the theoretical and practical aspect of social sciences and humanities.</p> <p>The journal is published in both print and online versions. The online version is accessed and downloaded for free.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Indexing and Abstracting</p> <p>ILIRIA International Review has <strong><a href="http://globalimpactfactor.com/iliria-international-review/">Global Impact Factor</a></strong> of 0.765 for 2015.&nbsp;</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/admin/Logot_e_partnereve_te_revistes-01-013.jpg" alt=""></p> ILIRIA College en-US ILIRIA International Review 2192-7081 <p><span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span></p><ol><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol><ul><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ul> Foreign Language Motivation: A Case of IUS Students http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/621 <p>Motivation plays important role in success in any line of work, consequently in language learning as well. Motivation in language learning is closely related to the achievement of the students, because success in second language learning is not achievable without motivation. In order to determine motivation of the students in SLA researchers have developed different ways in order to determine the level of motivation among different types of students. This research paper aims to determine the components of motivation in learning English language among IUS students. The second aim of this research is to identify the components of learner preferences for specific classroom practices and activities among IUS students. The third aim of this research is to identify relationships between the components of motivation and preferred classroom learning activities among IUS students .In this particular research, researchers used qualitative methodology to obtain the results for this study. Smidth’s questionnaire was adopted and administered to 33 IUS students. The research findings indicated that extrinsic motivation (M = 34.15), was the highest motivational factor for the students. Expectation as a motivational factor (M = 26.4), was at the second place for the students. Motivational strenght with the M = 13.00 followed as the next motivational factor. Intrisic motivation (M = 12.97), stereotypical attitudes toward Americans &amp; British (M = 12.15), personal psychological needs (M = 9.06) with their means as shown in the brackets were the least influential factors in students motivation.</p> Dr. Almasa Mulalic Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Almasa Mulalic http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.621 Impediments of financing and impact of domestic and foreign financing on economic growth in Bangladesh http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/622 <p>The main objective of the study is to analyze a significant impact of financing on economic growth in Bangladesh. Besides, study has identified the impediment of financing on borrower perspective. From the data of last twenty years (FY 1999-2018), we have found that there is a significant gap between domestic financing and net foreign financing to contributions of economic growth in Bangladesh. To conduct quantitative analysis, we have used Correlation, regression, test of hypothesis and descriptive analysis in the paper. Primary and secondary data has been used in this paper. Primary data has been collected through structure questionnaires format from borrowers, investor, and businessmen. Secondary data has been collected from some economic reviews and journals. The results suggest that, if the government can overcome impediments of financing and make balance both the sources of financing, which will help more significantly in achieving targeted GDP in Bangladesh. The study will make available to the policy makers that how overcome the impediments of financing and which financing is more emphasis for achieving targeted level of GDP. At the end, have given some recommendations regarding overcome the impediments of financing and how to make the financing balance between the domestic financing and foreign financing to drive the economic growth by accelerating investment</p> Sajadul Islam Sarker Copyright (c) 2021 Sajadul Islam Sarker http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.622 Recent Developments of Cyber-Offences in Slovenia http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/623 <p>Digitalisation of the economy has exceeded its original boundaries and expanded to all areas of social life. In addition to all the benefits of digitalisation, it also creates risks of malicious use of the electronic information potential. Cyber security should play its part to prevent electronic information network and system intrusions, misuse of information, and to ensure smooth and secure information flow.</p> <p>Research design&nbsp;of this paper is the set of three research methods used in collecting legal information about cyber security regulation and analysing findings. First approach is descriptive analysis of legal regulation. Second method is desktop analysis of recently adopted legal acts. Third research method is observational study. Synthesis is presented in the conclusions.</p> <p>Legal regulation of cyber security refers to protecting the data and information systems against unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, alteration, or destruction. Cyber security is concerned with the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of data regardless of the form the data may take electronic, print or any other.</p> <p>The Law of Minor Offences will apply to minor offences in the field of cyber security about “general” issues: liability of the perpetrator, imposition of sanctions, minor offence proceedings, etc., whereas the provisions of special legislation, more specifically, the provisions of the Cyber Security Law and the Electronic Communications Law, will apply to the identification of an act as a minor offence.</p> <p>However, in accordance with the <em>lex specialis derogat legi</em> generali principle, the general provisions of the Law of Minor Offences will apply only if such issues are not regulated otherwise by the Cyber Security Law and the Electronic Communications Law.</p> Dr. Andreja Primec Dr. Bojan Tičar Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Andreja Primec, Dr. Bojan Tičar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.623 Labor market flexibility in transition countries: a case study of North Macedonia http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/624 <p>The aim of this study is to provide a critical overview of labor market performance in North Macedonia. The findings suggest that the differences of labor markets in transition and advanced economies are shrinking over time and labor market flexibility is significantly affecting the unemployment rate. The findings confirm that North Macedonia suffers from a rigid labor market with several structural imbalances: high and persistent structural unemployment, skill shortages, skill mismatches, brain drain, persistent discrimination in the labor market, high informal economy, and inadequate labor taxation. Specifically, low skilled workers, especially, women, youth, older workers, ethnic minorities, and people in less developed regions are among others suffering high rates of unemployment. The findings suggest that high and persistent level of unemployment in Macedonia may arise due to the insufficient level of capital to employ the labor force, the stagnant structural reforms to address macroeconomic imbalances and still unfinished transition characterized by poor economic growth. We recommend to policy makers to implement structural reforms that would address current structural imbalances and increase labor market efficiency and would in turn result in higher potential for economic growth in North Macedonia</p> Dr. Arbresh Raveni Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Arbresh Raveni http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.624 FinTech Revolution of Non-banks and Future Survival of Banks: A Systematic Review http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/625 <p>The aim of the paper is to review academic papers on financial technology (FinTech) to identify how banks are going to survive in future against FinTech revolution of non-banks. Therefore, the paper summarizes the findings of existing literatures in this emerging sector and highlights the lessons for the FinTech firms, banks, regulators, and other stakeholders of FinTech across the world. The systematic literature consists of 13 closely relevant studies on FinTech. The paper suggests that introducing own online platform, acquisition of non-bank fintech competitors or partnership with these firms can protect banks from future survival against FinTech challenges. The paper demonstrates that academic papers are rare in the field of non-bank’s FinTech revolution and bank’s future survival that indicates huge potential for further research to be conducted by several stakeholders in FinTech industry specially academia, practitioners, and regulators. The paper is expected to add value demonstrating the key findings of existing literatures and summarizing significant lessons for the banks, non-bank FinTech firms, investors, policy makers and regulators</p> Mba. Mohammad Saiful Islam Copyright (c) 2021 Mba. Mohammad Saiful Islam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.625 Hub and Spoke Cartels Among Various Industries http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/626 <p>Competition policy plays a crucial role on regulating, supervising, and monitoring the market. However, companies in hub and spoke cartel engage in collusive activities to control the market and its competitors. Effective cartel collusion requires a strict coordination between parties on the scheme, monitoring for compliance of the scheme, with added incentives to comply, while punishment for breaching compliance. Under US law, parallel price setting is illegal and along with other evidence like meetings with competitors, exchange of information, control of market and any other collusion with respect towards harming the consumer is considered a violation, while European commission competition law is based on “Article 101 of the Treaty, which prohibits an agreement among two or more operators towards restriction of competition”</p> Phd C. Mirsad Simnica Copyright (c) 2021 Phd C. Mirsad Simnica http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.626 The cryptoelits and the demonstrations of 1981 http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/627 <p>The two decades of confrontation by the generation of the Republic with the Serbian state terror and other two in liberty, in the face-off with modern fascists, prove the political power and justice, not only of that generation, but of the very idea of a democratic Republic and in the service of the ideal for unification.</p> <p>The vertical stand of the ideologies of this generation and later also of the descendants of the same ideal, such as: Hydajet Hyseni, Ukshin Hoti, Ibrahim Kelmendi, Bajram Kosumi, Fadil Vata, Afrim Zhitia, Behadin Hallaqi, Sabri Kiçmari, Albin Kurti ... is the strongest guarantee for the liberation of the Republic even from "our" modern fascists. Meanwhile, the use of the Republic, as an intermediate station towards the unification, which I see in the form of a federal state - as Federal Albania, remains a success strategy in action</p> Dr. Sadri Ramabaja Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Sadri Ramabaja http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.627 Women as perpetrators of war crimes: a case of Bosnia and Herzegovina http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/628 <p>Having in mind the quantity of consequences that war crimes are leaving to their victims and society as a whole and the need for their prevention, it is very important to fully understand their nature. Data on the personality of the perpetrator can play an important role in accomplishing this goal. Starting with the examination of the place of women in the world of crime, the authors open the floor for a discussion about of the role of women in the perpetration of war crimes. Finally, they test their conceptual findings with actual cases, through a case study of the armed conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992-1995).</p> Dr. Ena Kazić Ba. Mariama Aidoo Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Ena Kazić, Ba. Mariama Aidoo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.628 Testing of Social Disorganization Theory http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/629 <p>Social disorganization means the loss of social control, or the creation of a legal vacuum, where comes to a state of organizational chaos, the imbalance of social order and disregard for social norms, where the efficiency of institutions is paralyzed or lost, and consequently social disorganization prevails. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the point of views of some authors in the field of sociology and criminology who argue the connections of the social disorganization theory with new theories on one hand, and on the other hand give critiques of this theory. A specific purpose is to compare the findings in the research of these authors to explain the various factors that influence the occurrence of social disorganization. Due to the complexity of the research, several methods are used in this paper such as the method of analysis and synthesis, the methods of induction and deduction, and considering the analysis of the social disorganization theory, also the comparative method is used in this paper. These methods will be used to support each other in overcoming the problem during testing the social disorganization theory. This paper will serve as an aid to sociologists, criminologists, professionals in the field, and those interested in learning more about the social disorganization theory</p> Dr. Ahmet Maloku Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Ahmet Maloku http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.629 Determining guilt as an element of criminal offense http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/630 <p>Criminal responsibility means that the criminal offense can be personally charged to its perpetrator, the basic content of the principle of guilt is that there is no crime, no punishment without guilt - (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine culpa).</p> <p>A criminal offense may be committed by either an omission to act or a voluntary act, also a criminal offense may be committed by an individual, jointly with or through another person, regardless of whether that other person is criminally responsible.</p> <p>Criminal responsibility is the individual and subjective responsibility of the perpetrator and his action that meet the legal features of the criminal offense. Capable of guilt is the perpetrator who is responsible at the time when crime is committed.</p> <p>Further on, responsibility, implies a reciprocal relationship between two entities: the one who responds and the one to whom it is accountable. No one can be held accountable for his actions in front of himself, except in the form of responsibility in front of his conscience</p> Dr. Ismail Zejneli Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Ismail Zejneli http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.630 Private legal aspects of the Republic of North Macedonia towards EU http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/631 <p>Much has been said and done since the Republic of North Macedonia became an EU candidate country.</p> <p>The Republic of North Macedonia deserves progress in moving closer to the European Union and NATO, avoiding obstacles on this path, and starting negotiations.</p> <p><strong><em>The purpose</em></strong> of this paper is to clarify the path that Macedonia decided to follow long time ago. The Government of the Republic of North Macedonia remains committed to the reforms related to the date for the opening of negotiations for membership in the European Union, despite the recent decision of the EU, as well as NATO membership, first to ensure fair governance, stability, economic development of the country and better life of the citizens.</p> <p>Failure to set a date at a time when North Macedonia has received the most positive report so far, with the recommendation to start talks was a blow to the institutions and the country, primarily due to the closure of one of the most sensitive issues, that of changing of the name. Thus, not giving the date can open many issues, it may eventually return nationalism, radicalism, populism that do not bring progress. The possible consequences for the state are low motivation for reforms, fostering a climate of political division, and even a possible political crisis.</p> <p>Because of these risks, and despite the same ones, the Government must continue its well-directed diplomatic commitments and continue with the reforms, but within the framework of a clearly defined strategy with incorporated national priorities.</p> <p><em>The</em> general feeling is that the EU, instead of criticizing and setting new conditions for Macedonia, decided to encourage it to continue with the reforms, this may be due to the fear coming from many authors that the countries of the Western Balkans are losing their confidence in the EU integration process.</p> Mr. sc. Rilinda Maqellara Mehmeti Dr. Blerim Reka Copyright (c) 2021 Mr. sc. Rilinda Maqellara Mehmeti, Dr. Blerim Reka http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.631 Special register of child sexual abusers and pedophiles as a necessary preventive measure http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/632 <p>Child sexual abuse is one of the most severe and extreme forms of child abuse. Child sexual abuse leaves long-term consequences in children, causes severe physical and psychological harm as well as affects the development and the future of the child.</p> <p>Today, in the contemporary world, one of the effective forms for the prevention of pedophilia is considered the registration of persons convicted of criminal offenses of pedophilia in a special register. The main purpose of registering these perpetrators is the possibility for the general public to have access to this data in order to know these persons (pedophiles) and to be able to prevent the possible actions of these persons. The Republic of North Macedonia has taken such a step, in accordance with these trends, where in 2012 the online portal for perpetrators of criminal offenses of child sexual abuse was launched.</p> <p>In Albania, the Law on the National Register of Child Sexual Abusers is expected to be adopted very soon, proposed mainly by the non-governmental sector and organizations for the protection of children from sexual abuse.</p> <p>This paper aims to address the experience in the RMV and review the draft law of Albania, to highlight the need to incorporate a special register of pedophiles in the Republic of Kosovo, given the statistical data that speak of large number of these crimes in recent years</p> Dr. Vedije Ratkoceri Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Vedije Ratkoceri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.632 The role of Kosovo in littoralisation processes around the Adriatic and the Aegean http://iliriapublications.org/index.php/iir/article/view/633 <p>There is no evidence that Kosovo rivers have ever been navigable, but river valleys have played a role as a road artery in the concentration of social and economic activities in coastal areas, namely in the processes of literalization.</p> <p>Due to its position, Kosovo is bridge between the seashores and continent within the Mediterranean basin in the part of southeastern Europe.</p> <p>Kosovo with its rivers mostly belongs to the Black Sea watershed, but in this paper will be emphasized the relations to the Adriatic and Aegean area due to the close distance and specific social, economic, cultural links extended in these spaces throughout history.</p> Phd C. Tomor Kastrati Copyright (c) 2021 Phd C. Tomor Kastrati http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-08-10 2021-08-10 11 1 10.21113/iir.v11i1.633