Not-recognizing policy within the minority EU members - Challenge for Kosovo’s Integration and Regional Peace-building

  • Dr.Sc. Samet Dalipi
  • MA. Nehat Demiri
  • MA. Arta Pllana-Shipoli
Keywords: Kosovo independence, Recognition, Sovereignty, EU integration, Peace-building,


Act of Recognition is the matter regulated by international law. After declaration of independence, Kosovo’s path toward EU integration is going to be problematic for Kosovo institutions and challenging for EU foreign policy.  Even though Kosovo was recognized by major international actors as sui generis case, some of them see this case as precedent and harmful for supposed developments within their jurisdictions, especially by 5 EU not recognizing countries. The article aims to justify the proclamation of independence by Kosovo institutions and to analyze the possible negative effects deriving from non-recognition policy for Kosovo and its new fragile democracy, hampering the democratic peace.  The policy of minor EU member states, contesting Kosovo’s statehood based on the assumption that the act of recognition will open a dangerous path for secession-minded national minorities in their own countries, taking into account that through (non)recognition, states attempt to continue or change the existing order at international relations. Postponing Kosovo’s recognition by the rest of EU members will accumulate negative potentials within the new state, with possible consequences for the region. 


Armakolas, I. Karabairis, A. 2011. Greece – Kosovo A complex relationship, European, Kosovo Calling, Kosovo Foundation for Open Society and British Council. 2012. “Kosovo Calling”. Available at: [ accessed 12 April 2015].

Civil Ge. 2008. “U.S Rules Out Recognising S. Ossetia”, 6 March. Available at: [ accessed 25 August 2015].

Council of the European Union. 2015. ENLARGEMENT AND STABILISATION AND ASSOCIATION PROCESS − Council conclusions, Available at: , [ accessed 12 February 2015].

Crawford, J. 2010. The Creation of States in International Law. Online wersion, ,[ accessed 12 February 2016].

Crawford, J. 2006. The Creation of States in International Law, Oxford : Oxford University Press , 2nd edition,.

Dalipi, S. et al. 2014. “A Unique Complex Peace-Building Process in Kosovo”, at ed. Dalipi S. and Luzha B. “15 Years of Peacebuilding in Kosovo, Lessons Learned for the Region and Beyond”, p. 12. Iliria College and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung-Prishtina.

De Gauna,R.H. 2014.Slovak President-elect favours Kosovo recognition. Available at: recognition [accessed 12 December 2016].

Gautam, B. 2016. From Pristina to Damascus – understanding Kosovo’s fighters in Syria, Transconflict, available at: [accessed 7 October 2016].

Fanes, J.V. 2011. Spain’s Position on Kosovo, Kosovo Calling, KFOS & British Council.

Hahn, J. 2016. Stabilization and Association Agreement with Kosovo - Remarks by Johannes Hahn on behalf of the HR/VP at the EP Plenary, Strasbourg, 20 January 2016. Available at: , [Accessed 12 February 2016].

Hehir, A.2009. Independence, Intervention and Great Power Patronage: Kosovo, Georgia and the Contemporary Self-Determination Penumbra. Amsterdam Law Forum, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 2, p. 88-100, jan. 2009. ISSN 1876-8156. Available at: <>. [accessed 13 February 2016]. 31.

Global Security Org. Spain - Foreign relations. Available at: [accessed 12 February 2016].

Đukanović, D. 2014. The Process of Institutionalization of the EU’s CFSP in the Western Balkan Countries during the Ukraine Crisis. CIRR XXI (72) 2015, 81-106. Available at: file:///C:/Users/Pentium-com/Downloads/CIRR_21_72_2015_Dukanovic.pdf [accessed 3 August 2015].

Eckert, E.A. Constructing States: The Role of the International Community in the Creation of New States, Available at: [accessed 10 March 2016].

“Fjalimi i plotë i Ramës dhe përgjigjet që ia dha gazetarëve”, 2014. Zëri. 10 November. Available at: [accessed 10 May 2015].

Joseph, E. P. 2013. “Kosovo’s Independence and Secessionist Movements: Dire Consequences or Benign Impact?” Secession Redux: Lessons for the EU’. Available at: [ accessed 12 March 2015].

Kentas, G. 2011. Position Paper on Kosovo, Kosovo Calling. Kosovo Foundation for Open Society and British Council. 2012. “Kosovo Calling”. Available at: [ accessed 12 April 2015].

Malanczuk, P. Akehurst’s Modern Introduction to International Law, London: Routledge 2006, p. 79.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Prishtina, 2014a. Government of the Republic of Kosovo imposes sanctions on Russian Federation. Available at: http://www.kryeministri-ks. net/?page=2,9,4452 [accessed 19 October 2015].

Mogherini, Frederica, 2016. Statement by High Representative/Vice-President Federica Mogherini following the meeting of the EU-facilitated dialogue, Brussels, 27/01/2016, 160127_02_en.Available at: , [accessed 11 February 2015].

Oppenheim,F.L.1912. International Law. A Treatise. Volume I.Sec.Ed.Gutenberg Ebook. (2010).

Popescu, O. 2011. “The Current State of Relations Between Romania and Kosovo and Prospects For Evolution”, Global Focus, Bucharest, 2011, At Kosovo Calling, 2012. Available at: [ accessed 15 September 2015].

Recognition, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2013, available at: , [accessed 18 march 2016].

Slovak Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2010. “MZV SR on the opinion on Kosovo’s independence “Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovak Republic, 22 July 2010;

Sebastián, S. 2010. Spanish Foreign Policy in the Balkans: Wasted Potential. FRIDE.

Security Council Report. 2015. Speech at UNSC 7510 meeting, p.12/30. Available at: [ accessed 15 September 2015].

Weller, M. 2008. “Negotiation the Final Status on Kosovo”. Chaillot Paper, no. 114. Available at: [ accessed 21 April 2015].

Wilde,R. 2010, Recognition of States: the Consequences of Recognition or Non-Recognition in UK and International Law, Chatham House.

Worster, W.T. 2009. Law, Politics, and the Conception of the State in State Recognition Theory, Boston University International Law Journal, Vol. 27:115, 2009.

Review Articles