The Physical Punishment in the Emerging of Children Aggressive Behaviours
AbstractThe focus of the present study is the exploration of factors related to physical parental punishment and the display of aggression among school-age children. The study was conducted in Tirana and Durres with children of seven elementary schools, in a total of 830 children of the group-age 7 to 11 years old. Our aim is to identify the differences between physically punished children and physically non-punished children in the emergence of aggressiveness in general, identification of forms of aggression that exhibit the physically punished children, identification of gender differences in the manifestation of forms of aggression in physically punished children. We used the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scales (Björkqvist, Lagerspetz & Österman, 1992) and four questionnaires were designed to collect information from the child whether the parents were involved in these forms of punishment or not. The results of the study showed that there were differences in the display of aggressiveness among physically punished children and physically non-punished children; there was also a tendency for physically punished children to exhibit a higher level of Direct Aggression. Findings also emerged in terms of gender differences in the appearance of aggressiveness in physically punished children. The conclusions highlight the role played by the physical punitive factor in the emergence of aggressive behaviour in children. In this context, the role of parental patterns and what they transmit to the child should be taken into account by the authoritarian figures that are in daily contact with the child - parents or teachers.
Action for Children and Youth Aotearoa (2003) Children and Youth in Aotearoa 2003: The Second Non-Governmental Organisations’ Report from Aotearoa New Zealand to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child-Wellington. New Zealand, Action for Children and Youth Aotearoa, Retrieved from http://www. acya.org.nz/
Ahmed, R., &Haque, M. E. (2007). A comparative study in aggression between adolescent boys and girls of tribal and nontribal students in Chitagong Hill Tracts. Journal of Life and Earth Science, 2(2), 79-84.
Allen, E. S., Atkins, D. C., Baucom, D. H., Snyder, D. K., Gordon, K. C., & Glass, S. P. (2005). Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors in engaging in and responding to extramarital involvement. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 12 (2), 101-130
Allen, K. (2011). Off the radar and ubiquitous: text messaging and its relationship t'drama' and cyber bullying in an affluent, academically rigorous us high school. Journal of Youth Studies, 15(1), 99-117. doi:
Ang, R., & Goh, D. (2010).Cyber bullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy and gender. Child psychiatry Human Development, 41(4), 387-397.doi: 10.1007/s10578-010-0176-3.
Baruah, M. & Kausik, N.H. (2017). A Comparison of Emotional Verbal, Physical Social and Destructive Modes of Aggression among Tribal and Non-Tribal Young Adults of Assam International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM), 5, 02, 5129-5138,
Baumrind, D., Larzelere R.E & Cowan P.A. (2002) “Ordinary physical punishment: Is it harmful? Comment on Gershoff (2002)” Psychological Bulletin, 128(4):580–589.
Björkqvist, K., Lagerspetz, K. M. J., & Kaukiainen, A. (1992). Do girls manipulate and boys fight? Developmental trends regarding direct and indirect aggression Aggressivebehavior, 18(2),117-127. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098 2337( 1992) 18:2< 117:AID-AB2480180205>3.0.CO;2-3.
Crick, N. R., Grotpeter, J.K., & Bigbee, M.A. (2002). Relationally and phisically aggressive children's intent atributions and feeling of distress for relational and instrumental peer provocations. Child Development, 73(4) 1134-1142.
Deater-Deckard, K. & K.A. Dodge (1997) “Externalising behavior problems and discipline revisited: Nonlinear effects and variation by culture, context and gender” Psychological Inquiry, 8(3):161–175.
Gershoff, E.T. (2002a) “Corporal punishment by parents and associated child behaviors and experiences: A meta-analytic and theoretical review” Psychological Bulletin, 128(4):539–579.
Gershoff, E.T. (2002b) “Corporal punishment, physical abuse, and the burden of proof: Reply to Baumrind, Larzelere, and Cowan (2002), Holden (2002), and Parke (2002)” Psychological Bulletin, 128(4):602–611
Grogan-Kaylor, A. (2004) “The effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior in children” Social Work Research, 28(3):153–164.
Holden, G.W. (2002) “Perspectives on the effects of corporal punishment: Comment on Gershoff (2002)” Psychological Bulletin, 128(4):590–595.
Horn, I.B., J.G. Joseph and T.L. Cheng (2004) “Nonabusive physical punishment and child behaviour among African-American Children” Journal of the National Medical Association, 96 (9):1162–1168.
Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Smailes, E. M., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. S. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295(5564), 2468–2471. DOI: 10.1126/science.1062929
Jones, B. L., Nagin, D. S., & Roeder, K. (2001). A SAS procedure based on mixture models for estimating developmental trajectories. Sociological Methods and Research, 29 (3), 374–393.
Keenan, K., & Shaw, D. (1997). Developmental and social influences on young girls’ early problem behaviours. Psychological Bulletin, 121, 95–113.
Keenan, K., & Shaw, D. S. (1994). The development of aggression in toddlers: A study of low-income families. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 53–77.
Keenan, K., & Wakschlag, L. S. (2000). More than the terrible twos: The nature and severity of behaviour problems in clinic-referred preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 28, 33–46.
Straus, M.A. and J.H. Stewart (1999) “Corporal punishment by American parents: National data on prevalence, chronicity, severity, and duration, in relation to child and family characteristics” Clinical Child dhe Family Psychology Review, 2(2):55–70.
Smith, J.R., & Brooks-Gunn J. (1997) “Correlates and consequences of harsh discipline for young children” Archives of Pediatrics dhe Adolescent Medicine, 151(8):777–786.
Copyright (c) 2019 Dr.Sc. Eglantina Dervishi, Dr.Sc. Silva Ibrahimi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeThe Effect of Open Access).